Music, Instruments, and Resources

Information on music and instruments, especially from the Anglo-Saxon and Viking worlds, as well as makers of modern reconstructions. This page will be updated frequently.


Benjamin Bagby’s lyre:

“Beowulf, the Edda, and the Performance of Medieval Epic,” by Benjamin Bagby:

“The Early Lyre in Scandinavia. A Survey,” by Gjermund Kolltveit:

Anglo-Saxon and Germanic Lyres, by Michael Levy:

Sámi Drums – Then and Now (a history of the use of the drum in Sámi culture):

The Oldest Bone Flute (National Geographic article about a 40,000-year-old flute):

Project Telyn Rawn (a research project to reconstruct the telyn rawn, a medieval Welsh harp, strung with horsehair):

Regina Anglorum (a historical re-creation site, with a good page on music and instruments in the Anglo-Saxon and Viking worlds):


Instrument makers:

Kate and Corwen, Ancient Music (makers of lyres, drums, rattles, flutes and bowed instruments; very good quality!):

Paul Butler (excellent custom-made lyres, citoles, and other instruments):

Roland Suits (magnificent early harps, gusli, and other instruments):

Hortus Instrumentorum (very nice medieval creations, including early Italian and Carolingian lute and citole-like instruments, and lyres):

Michael J. King (lyres, crwths, kanteles, and many other instruments):

Steven Kauder (very nice shamanic drums and rattles, including northern, Saami style):


General Information:

“Searching for the Lost Voice of my Germanic Ancestors,” by Benjamin Bagby:

Viking Answer Lady: Viking Music (a very good summary of some of the known facts about music during the Viking Age, with an extensive bibliography):

Michael Levy’s lyre pages (good information and articles about northern as well as Ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern music and instruments):

Homeric Singing: An Approach to the Original Performance (a reconstruction of possible methods of ancient Greek recitation and singing of epic poetry):

International Study Group on Music Archeology:

Performing Medieval Narrative Today (a video resource of narrative and epic poetry performances, including readings and music, from the early to the later Middle Ages):

The Beowulf Manuscript online (British Library Cotton MS Vitellius A XV):